Earlier this month, the French competition authority ruled that Google must negotiate in “good faith” with news publishers to pay them for using news snippets in Google’s News and search products. This is the first European country to enforce the European Copyright Directive, which seeks to ensure that there is a more balanced relationship between content creators and platform aggregators.
The issue at hand is the ability of these aggregators to monetize content that they did not create, to the detriment of those who created the content – often at significant cost. The original value proposition was the delivery of a click/consumer to the content creator’s site. However, over time, aggregators have taken great liberties with the quantity of content they display, often negating the need for consumers to visit the content creator’s site at all.
The directive was specifically intended to extend copyright protection to news ledes and snippets. In response to French law that memorialized the Directive, Google announced that it would flaunt the new law altogether by removing from Google News and Google Search the snippet descriptions, news organization brand, and photographs associated with the news articles.
Instead, Google would only display the headline and URL putting the content at a disadvantage to other results. Aggressively but maybe not surprisingly, Google said it would reinsert the snippet description, news organization brand and any photographs if the publishers would give a free license. The French authority ruled that this constituted an abuse by Google of its dominant position.
Coming off the heels of the French ruling, Australia’s Competition and Consumer Commission reached a similar boiling point with big tech platforms. For months the Commission has been negotiating with Google and Facebook on a voluntary code to ensure a fairer balance between news publishers and platform aggregators. And, for months Google and Facebook had been reportedly stonewalling.
On Monday, Australian Treasurer Josh Frydenberg pulled the plug on talks and announced that the Commission will release mandatory rules in July to compel platforms such as Google and Facebook to, among other things, fairly compensate news publishers for the use of their content. The move could not come at a more important time as over 50 news publishers in Australia have recently closed shop. Meanwhile, Google rakes in approximately 47% and Facebook approximately 24% of digital advertising revenue in Australia.
The impact could be profound, particularly if the platforms respond as Google did in France. Imagine Google search results, news, or your Facebook feed without any reputable media sources. Clearly, quality news content is valuable to the big tech platforms, just as the ability to reach new audiences is valuable to publishers. As the Commission recognized, the current value exchange is not a fair balance of interests.
Big tech, big flex
Of course, these countries’ frustrations with big tech platforms should not be surprising to anyone. Google has a particularly long track record of using strong-arm tactics to achieve and maintain its dominance. A recent example occurred when the European Union was preparing to enforce the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), the sweeping data privacy and security regulation.
While GDPR is intended to give consumers greater control over the collection of their data, Google used it as a land-grab opportunity. Just weeks before enforcement began in May 2018, Google announced to industry (and only after journalists were prepared to break the news) their non-negotiable terms for publishers and advertising in complying with the GDPR. Any company which used any Google service or product would 1) need to get express, affirmative consent from consumers for Google to collect consumer data; 2) would not be told how Google would use or secure the data (which would render any consent invalid); and 3) would be liable for any GDPR violation by Google.
Along with several other trade associations representing publishers, we detailed our concerns directly to Google. Of course, it’s not surprising that Google would attempt to deflect as much legal risk as possible. Liability is often a major point of negotiation in any contract. However, Google is so dominant, that this is not a real negotiation.
Perhaps more surprising is that Google did not even entertain the possibility of restraining its massive data surveillance regime. Under the GDPR, companies that collect and use data only on behalf of the website or app (and do not use the data for an unexpected secondary purpose) are considered “processors” of data. Typically, processors are not required to get consumer consent, instead they can rely on other legal bases such as “legitimate interest.”
Reverting to the role of a processor would have placed Google more in line with consumer expectations and it would have made for a much better user experience (e.g. no messy pop-ups asking for vague consent). Instead, Google dictated its “take it or leave it” terms to the industry and consumers. And it’s data profiling would continue uninterrupted. Sounds familiar.
Titanics do sink
The French and Australian rulings could have huge implications going forward. And they are likely only the tip of the iceberg. Many other regulators in Europe and the U.S. are actively looking at the anticompetitive behaviors of big tech platforms. As we noted above, this couldn’t come at a more important time.
As the Covid-19 crisis continues to impact the world, news organizations are redirecting significant resources and personnel to cover the health and economic impact, separate fact from fiction, and hold public officials accountable. More broadly, entertainment companies are working overtime to create and distribute content to audiences “staying at home.” Yet, these content creators are often swimming up-stream to generate sufficient revenue to fund the news and entertainment that consumers love and need because the digital distribution channels are dominated by the big tech platforms.
We’re glad to see public officials pushing back on the anticompetitive behavior of big tech platforms and helping ensure a more equitable balance of interests. As the current crisis has clearly demonstrated: We need quality, reputable, trusted content more than ever.