The topline: Media and tech executives, journalists, and legislators all have a stake in whether or not existing copyright law effectively protects the intellectual property of journalists from AI infringement.
On January 10, 2024, the Senate Judiciary Committee’s Subcommittee on Privacy, Technology, and the Law held a hearing titled “Oversight of A.I.: The Future of Journalism,” kickstarting legislative activity on AI for 2024. The central question of this hearing wasn’t whether copyright law covers AI, most witnesses and members of Congress seemed to agree that it does, it was whether existing law properly and effectively protects AI’s infringement on the intellectual property of journalists. As Subcommittee Chairman Senator Richard Blumenthal (D-CT) stated, rights need remedies, and for these remedies to be effective, they must be enforceable. It was that effectiveness and enforceability that was the true centerpiece of this Congressional discussion.
The witnesses at the hearing were: Danielle Coffey, President and Chief Executive Officer of the News Media Alliance, Jeff Jarvis, Tow Professor of Journalism Innovation at the CUNY Graduate School of Journalism, Curtis LeGeyt, President and Chief Executive Officer of the National Association of Broadcasters and Roger Lynch, Chief Executive Officer of Condé Nast.
For senators, a sense of urgency
During his opening statement, Senator Blumenthal (D-CT) highlighted the importance of this subject and this hearing, touting it as critical to democracy. Careful not to vilify the possibilities awarded by AI, Senator Blumenthal argued it is essential for reporters and readers to be able to reap the benefits of AI while avoiding its pitfalls. Nonetheless, he clearly called out how the rise of big tech and generative AI has led to the decline of the news industry, with the hard work of authors being utilized without credit or compensation.
Evident in Senator Blumenthal’s remarks was a sense of urgency, as he expressed that it was essential that Congress learn from their mistakes in tackling social media. He also floated several areas of consensus around the topic of AI, such as licensing, transparency, incentive structures for companies to develop trustworthy products, limiting big tech’s monopolistic practices when it comes to advertising, and clarifying that Section 230 does not apply to AI.
As a refresher, Section 230 of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 states that “No provider or user of an interactive computer service shall be treated as the publisher or speaker of any information provided by another information content provider.” Since coming into effect, Section 230 has granted websites and social media companies immunity from liability for content posted on their platforms by others.
It is no surprise that several of these areas of consensus are present in legislative proposals introduced by Senator Blumenthal. In 2023, he, alongside Subcommittee Ranking Member Senator Josh Hawley (R-MO) introduced the “No Section 230 Immunity for AI Act”as well as an AI Legislative Framework which tackled licensing regimes, transparency, and trustworthiness.
In his opening statement, Senator Hawley echoed Senator Blumenthal’s sense of urgency in protecting the work product, data, and information of consumers, at a time when the largest tech companies attempt to monopolize these areas.
For witnesses, a (somewhat) clear solution
Across the board, the hearing’s four witnesses illustrated the invaluable contributions the news industry has made to society. Danielle Coffey, Curtis LeGeyt, and Roger Lynch all agreed that licensing agreements are an essential component in combating the risks AI poses to the industry.
Coffey highlighted that such agreements could help avoid protracted uncertainty in the courts, while LeGeyt and Lynch raised how licensing agreements have become standard practice in the music, radio, and local television industries. Jeff Jarvis was more optimistic about the positive use cases of AI in the industry and advocated for the measured embrace and implementation of AI in journalistic practices.
A fork in the road for the industry
Following witness testimonies, committee members expressed their support of licensing agreements as a solution to some of the copyright issues raised by the interaction between AI and the news industry. Even more so, several committee members expressed their eagerness to tackle the issue directly and immediately.
Senator Mazie Hirono (D-HI) inquired whether Congress needed to enact legislation for these kinds of licensing procedures to be implemented, while Senator Blumenthal stated that when it comes to both licensing and Section 230 issues, Congress has an obligation to clarify current law, ensure that licensing is legally required and reinforce the inapplicability of Section 230. Somewhat surprisingly, it was some of the witnesses who pumped the legislative breaks on these comments. Regarding Senator Hirono’s comments, LeGeyt argued that such Congressional action would be premature while Coffey stated she believed the industry would prevail in addressing these issues through pending litigation.
What is undeniable, is that 2024 is set to be a landmark year for Congressional action on AI, and that copyright issues offer legislators a path to AI “victory” that is targeted, discreet, and not overtly controversial. Because of this, regardless of what was advocated for in this hearing, members of Congress can be expected to at the very least attempt to “clarify” the applicability of existing copyright law to generative AI models. Of course, the distinction between a limited clarification of current law and the outright enforcement of these types of agreements is up to legislators.
While witnesses adamantly made the case that copyright law is on their side, legislators continuously expressed concerns with the efficacy of existing protections. Going back to Senator Blumenthal’s statement, about rights needing remedies that are effective and enforceable, participants agreed that the rights of journalists certainly exist in copyright law, but for legislators, efficacy and enforceability need an extra push from Congress to come to fruition.
Looking towards 2024, with copyright litigation in its nascent stages, the digital content industry may certainly find relief in the legal system but would be wise to hedge some of its bets in the hands of legislators who seem keen on engaging with this industry-defining issue.